Suitable for production between 800 and 3000 t/d.

Key features

  • Referenced and reliable steam reforming process
  • Energy efficiency up to 6.6÷6.8 gcal/t
  • Highly automated

The A2000 is Casale’s process suitable for world scale capacity ammonia plants (plant capacity in the typical range 800÷3000 MTD). The process is based on the standard steam reforming route.
The main steps, of the A2000, are:

  • Desulphurization
  • Primary and secondary reforming
  • HT and LT shift conversion
  • CO2 removal
  • Methanation
  • Synthesis gas drying
  • Compression
  • Ammonia synthesis
  • Hydrogen recovery

Embedded Casale’s technologies

Several Casale’s well-proven and highly efficient technologies and proprietary items are the key underpinnings of the A2000 scheme, namely:

  • Casale design of primary reformer
  • High-efficiency secondary reformer burner
  • Axial-radial HT and LT shift converters
  • Ammonia wash drying of the syngas to the synloop
  • Ammonia synthesis converter
  • High efficiency loop heat recovery exchangers with direct connection to the ammonia converter

Key features

The A2000 is characterized by high reliability, superior performances, streamlined design for cost effectiveness and reduced environmental impact. The design can be customized to specific Client’s needs and integrated with any Casale’s downstream unit, such as urea, or nitric and nitrates or any solid fertilizer plants.

The process is extremely flexible and the scheme may be adapted to specific market needs and/or customer requirements. Other distinctive features are:

  • The energy consumption is in the range of 6.6.-6.8 Gcal/Mton (24.0-24.5 MM BTU/Short ton) on LHV basis
  • The steam balance can be optimized from zero export to maximum export
  • Flexibile to use any first-class commercially available catalyst, but possibility to adopt Casale proprietary products
  • Synthesis reactor ammonia concentration increase > 15%
  • Compact and simple lay-out, with all sections arranged in a way to minimize the overall footprint as well as optimize the connections across the different sections of the plant
  • Primary importance is given to the process control, as the safety and reliability of the plant as well as its efficiency and economics depend on it
  • Full life-cycle support by means of Casale’s Remote Plant Monitoring and/or Casale’s Customer Care services