Efficient and reliable synthesis loop.

Suitable for a wide range of plant capacity (small to big).

Key features

  • Design suitable for coal and NG-based plant
  • High operational safety
  • Different configurations depending on Client needs

Casale already has dozens of back-end sections (Syntheis loop+ refrigerant section) in operation around the world designed in the last 15-20 years, suitable for coal and NG plant with improved reliability, availability, performances and safety.

The heart of the synthesis loop is the adiabatic or isothermal ammonia converter designed to provide the highest possible performance (the best presently available on the market) with low pressure drop and with direct connection nozzle-to-nozzle with the downstream equipment (typically steam superheater or synloop WHB or BFW pre-heater). This feature of Casale’s proposed layout avoids the installation of pipe subjected to high temperature operating conditions; in fact the conditions of syngas leaving the converter are favourable for a nitriding attack. By not using a high pressure high temperature stainless steel line , Casale’s proposed layout increases the reliability and safety of the system as high pressure piping containing hydrogen and ammonia is avoided.

In the 2000C heat recovery is performed according to different configurations such as steam superheater + synloop WHB + BFW pre-heater, or synloop WHB + BFW pre-heater or simply with a BFW pre-heater. The specific heat recovery is always higher than 600'000 kcal/MTNH3, providing high efficiency to the synloop and low plant energy consumption.

Also, the cold section of the synthesis loop is designed to fulfill the Client needs (if any) otherwise a standard configuration with (usually ) two ammonia chillers is provided.

The refrigerant section is designed to supply at BLs different ammonia products, namely:

  • cold ammonia
  • warm ammonia
  • warm ammonia with low dissolved gases
  • gaseous ammonia

The refrigerant section is designed to a close or open circuit depending on the fixed targets.
The Typical synloop pressure drop is 8 bar (adjustable)