Most robust and efficient adiabatic ammonia converter layout available on the market. Suitable for capacity up to 5000 MTD on single train configuration. Suitable for new and revamped converter.

Since several years CASALE is using a three catalytic beds cartridge configuration with intermediate heat exchangers design, which leads to higher thermodynamic efficiency compared to other designs.

Embedded Casale’s technologies

Several Casale’s well-proven and highly efficient technologies are implemented in adiabatic bed design:

  • Axial-radial design for catalyst beds
  • Rod-baffle internal exchangers
  • Top open basket for an easy catalyst loading and unloading

Key features

For a given pressure vessel geometry, the three beds converter gives higher process performances compared with the two beds design.

This means that with the same catalyst volume a higher conversion per pass is achieved by the three beds converter or that to achieve the same conversion per pass a lower catalyst volume is necessary with the three beds converter.

The present state-of-the-art design for ammonia synthesis converters is based on:

  1. Optimal thermodynamic catalyst distribution in multi-bed cartridge and maximum filling of catalyst inside the cartridge, i.e. maximum volume of catalyst loaded with consequent high conversion.
  2. Highest efficiency of each bed, peculiar of the axial-radial technology, that allows the complete utilization of the catalyst volume.
  3. An axial-radial flow of the gas stream through the catalyst bed at much lower pressure drop than before.
  4. Use of small-size catalyst, which shows higher activity compared to the large-size catalyst.

Main mechanical and process features of the Casale design are:

  • 3 axial-radial beds
  • 2 rod baffle type interchangers
  • independent temperature control for each bed
  • dismantable components
  • material suitable to avoid signifcant Nitriding issues
  • top open basket for an easy catalyst loading and unloading